Ceramics are made from different types of clays.

As previously mentioned, many people associate ceramics with tableware and home decoration. They are the traditional ceramics composed of clay minerals and quartz sand.

  1. Porcelain requires high temperature more than 1250 °c. It has a high level of hardness with low water absorption.
  2. Stoneware requires medium firing temperature approximately 1150-1200 °c. It has lower level of hardness than the porcelain. The water absorption is between 3-5 %
  3. Bone China is made from bone ash along with other minerals resulting in transparent work with medium hardness and low water absorption.
  4. Earthenware requires firing temperature at 900-1100 °c. It has low hardness with high water absorption of มี 10-20%

As previously mentioned, the modern ceramics are made of processed raw materials with high level of purity. It microstructure and chemical components are accurately controlled. The modern ceramics can be grouped into structural ceramics, electroceramics and
medical ceramics